Posts Tagged ‘fossil fuels’

Great Recession Had Little Impact on CO2 Emissions

Tuesday, December 20th, 2011

Worldwide CO2, emissions have risen by nearly 50 percent in the past several decades, with 2010 now holding the record as the year with the most greenhouse gas emissions on record.  Burning fossil fuels released more than 36 billion metric tons of CO2 in 2010, due primarily to growth in China, India, and the United States.  Deforestation is another core cause.

Going back half a century, nothing seems to have set back emissions for many years and that includes the Great Recession that started in late 2008, according to a new study published in the journal Nature Climate Change. Other studies indicate that mankind has burned approximately 50 percent of available fossil fuels if we don’t want the climate to warm by more than two degrees Celsius.  More to the point, we’ll need zero or negative emissions and emissions to peak sometime this decade to avoid any further warming.

Emissions rose approximately 510 million metric tons of carbon to reach 9.14 billion tons in 2010, the most in records dating to 1959, according to the Global Carbon Project.  That represents a 5.9 percent increase, the largest since 2003, when they jumped six percent.  The 2010 global emissions were 33.5 billion tons when converted to carbon dioxide.

“We’re going exactly in the wrong direction for limiting global warming,” said Corinne Le Quere, co-author of the Global Carbon Project’s report and a director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of East Anglia, England.  “Governments need to develop ways to boost the economy using renewable energy,” she said.

“Global CO2 emissions since 2000 are tracking the high end of the projections used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which far exceed two degrees warming by 2100,” Le Quere said.  “Yet governments have pledged to keep warming below two degrees to avoid the most dangerous aspects of climate change, such as widespread water stress and sea level rise, and increases in extreme climatic events.”

There’s growing evidence that 2011 will almost certainly be the 10th warmest on record, and the hottest featuring the La Nina phenomenon that brings cooler waters to the surface of the Pacific Ocean, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).  “There’s clearly a warming trend.  That’s supported by other indicators such as disappearing Arctic sea ice, melting glaciers and rising sea levels,” Peter Stott, head of climate monitoring at the U.K. Met Office, whose own temperature estimates feed into the WMO data, said.

“The global financial crisis was an opportunity to move the global economy away from a high-emissions trajectory.  Our results provide no indication of this happening,” according to the study’s authors.  The study was issued at a planet-warming gases panelat U.N. climate talks in Durban, South Africa.

Writing on Times’ Ecocentric blog, Bryan Walsh notes that “The study underscores just how little we’ve done to slow the increase in carbon emissions. Since 1990 –the base year for the Kyoto Protocol –carbon emissions from fossil fuels have increased by 49 percent, making a mockery of that global treaty’s ambition to cut emissions by at least five percent.  And it’s getting worse –on average, fossil fuel emissions have risen by 3.1 percent a year between 2000 and 2010, three times the rate of increase seen during the 1990s, even as global warming has become a global concern.

According to a Nature blog, “What’s new in this analysis is that it puts the recovery in context with previous global crises.  It also updates a novel type of carbon dioxide accounting pioneered by lead author Glen Peters, who is at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo.  Usually, and under the Kyoto Protocol, carbon dioxide emissions are identified with the nation that produces them.  Yet rich countries have largely achieved cuts in CO2 emissions since 1990 by importing goods made elsewhere.  Around one-fifth of China’s emissions, for example, come from making goods demanded by consumers in other nations.  If you count the CO2 emissions embodied in final consumer demand, the study shows, Kyoto’s ‘developed’ countries are consuming more carbon dioxide now than they did in 1990 — although they report cuts in domestic production.  Even so, 2009 marked the first time that developing countries consumed more carbon dioxide than developed countries.  The crisis may not have fully passed, and it’s too early to tell whether the green stimulus packages introduced in recent years will have a positive impact, the study says.  For the moment it’s sobering to think that the pain caused by the financial crisis made but a small dent in global CO2 emissions.”

Renewable Energy Industry Meets Challenges Head On

Thursday, October 27th, 2011

The renewable energy industry is facing serious challenges from competition subsidized by foreign governments and restrictive regulations on the home front.  This was the consensus at the recent Solar Exchange East 2011, attended by academics, solar entrepreneurs, engineers, investors, supporters and government officials at the McKimmon Center at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

Larry Shirley, director of the Green Economy program at the North Carolina Department of Commerce’s Energy Division, said that “Policies and incentives are the building blocks” for the solar industry.  Participants generally called for an end to government preference for fossil fuels, while critics believe the traditional means of letting private investors and the market dictate the industry’s direction is the optimal policy.

“Subsidies are basically a waste of taxpayers’ money, a form of corporate welfare,” said Roy Cordato, the John Locke Foundation’s vice president for research and resident scholar and one of the critics.  “These (renewable energy ventures) are grossly inefficient.  If they weren’t, they wouldn’t need government subsidies.”

“This is a robust environment,” said Rick Myers, director of the Solar Vertical Market Management program for Siemens.  “The U.S. solar market grew 67 percent, from $3.6 billion in 2009 to $6 billion in 2010.  Solar electric installation In 2010 totaled 956 megawatts.  There’s no doubt the U.S. government needs to get more involved in this effort from a policy standpoint.  The solar panels are 50 percent of the cost for installation and these prices are going way down.  The fact of the matter is the competition is extremely difficult in that area.  It’s coming from the Pacific Rim and China.”

In a related move that boosts renewable energy, a U.S. Treasury Department grant program that pays for up to 30 percent of a solar project’s costs would add 37,394 jobs to the economy in 2012 has been extended for one year, according to the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA).  The program, part of the 2009 economic stimulus package, was due to expire at the end of 2011 after an initial one-year extension was passed by Congress last December.  A second extension will boost solar jobs by 12 percent as developers increase installations by 2,000 megawatts, or enough for about 400,000 homes.  More than 100,000 Americans currently work in the solar industry, double the number in 2009, said Rhone Resch, SEIA’s chief executive officer.  “Much of the jobs and industry growth has come out of that program,” Resch said.  “The last thing the government should do in a fragile economy is eliminate a tax break that creates jobs.”

With the grant program, developers can obtain the equivalent amount in cash and write off assets more quickly.  The solar industry has received more money from the grant program than any other renewable energy sectors with the sole exception of wind.  “The (program) has been the most effective policy in driving economic and job growth in the past two years,” Resch said.  “As we continue to slog through a sluggish economy, the tax equity market remains in a much smaller capacity than where it was in 2007.”

Writing for Renewable Energy World.com, Elisa Wood says that “We hear a lot about the job-building benefits of renewable energy when it draws manufacturers and developers to local communities.  Less talked about are those who arrive well before the shovels, steel, factories and jobs.  These are the green-energy entrepreneurs – the creative thinkers and risk takers responsible for the rise of clean energy ventures over the last decade.  Others entering the industry are veterans of energy, finance, agriculture, telecommunications, high tech, science, transportation, construction, nanotechnology and commerce, all drawn by enormous opportunity, as the largest economies in the world spend an expected $2.3 trillion over the next decade to revamp industrial-age energy apparatus into cutting-edge technology.  Green energy entrepreneurs emerge from throughout North America, Europe and Asia, but they tend to congregate in high-tech regions such as Silicon Valley, an area of California becoming as much about energy as it is the internet.  ‘You can’t throw a softball around here without hitting another solar company,’ says Dan Shugar, one of the solar industry’s early pioneers and now chief operating officer of Solaria, a Fremont, CA-based company that makes silicon photovoltaic products.”

GE Enters the Solar Power Business

Wednesday, June 29th, 2011

The nation’s largest conglomerate – General Electric – is getting into the solar business in a big way with the firm’s announcement that it is investing $600 million to build a new solar-panel manufacturing plant as it pursues what it thinks could be a $3 billion business by 2015.  The firm, already a leader in renewable energy, has designed a thin-film solar panel that converts sunlight to electricity more efficiently than any other product currently on the market.  The firm, a leading manufacturer of wind- and natural gas-powered electric turbines, plans to open a factory in an as-yet unknown location by 2013.  The facility will employ 400 workers and produce enough solar panels annually to power 80,000 homes.

“The biggest challenge today for the mainstream adoption of solar is cost, and the way you move cost is efficiency,” said Victor Abate, vice president of GE’s renewable energy unit.  “We see ourselves continuing to push that and continuing to move efficiency and as a result the costs of solar continue to come down.”  According to Abate, a decision on where to locate the factory will be made within the next three months.  The decision will be based on criteria including proximity to GE’s research centers, available space, and state and local government incentives, Abate said.  GE expects to make a decision before the end of the year at the latest.

GE’s entry into the solar business comes at an excellent time.  Solar panel installations are expected to surge in the next two years as the cost of generating electricity from the sun approaches that of coal-fueled plants. Large photovoltaic projects would cost $1.45 a watt to build by 2020, half the current price, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance estimates.  Solar is feasible against fossil fuels on the electric grid in sunny regions such as the Middle East.  “We are already in this phase change and are close to grid parity,” said Canadian Solar chief executive Shawn Qu.  “In many markets, solar is already competitive with peak electricity prices, such as in California and Japan.”

Solar photovoltaic system installation has the potential to nearly double to 32.6 gigawatts by 2013 from 18.6GW last year, according to New Energy Finance.  Manufacturing capacity worldwide has quadrupled since 2008 to 27.5GW annually; 12GW of production will be added in 2011.  Canadian Solar had about 1.3GW of capacity and is expected to reach 2GW in 2012, Qu said.


Writing in Time’s “Ecocentric” column, Bryan Walsh says that the new plant is “Good news for solar advocates and bad news for competitors — General Electric is ready to break into the solar cell business in a major way.  The $218 billion company announced today that it had built a solar module with the highest-ever efficiency rate for cadmium-telluride thin film — the most popular low-cost solar technology — at 12.8 percent, according to independent testers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.  That announcement came as GE told reporters that it intends to manufacture those solar modules at a 400-MW factory — in what would be the biggest such facility in the U.S. — that is set to open in 2013.  GE also completed the acquisition of PrimeStar Solar, the Colorado-based thin-film manufacturer, which will complement its recent acquisition of the power conversion company Converteam.”

Google Partners to Create Mid-Atlantic Offshore Wind Farm Transmission Grid

Wednesday, October 27th, 2010

Google is expanding into offshore wind farm transmission grid. Google is expanding its horizons by partnering with Good Energies, a New York-based investment firm that specializes in renewable energy, to create a $5 billion, 350-mile-long transmission grid to support offshore wind farms along the Atlantic Seaboard.

Each of the two firms has agreed to take 37.5 percent of the equity portion of the project – named the Atlantic Wind Connection — and are looking for additional investors.  Trans-Elect, a Maryland-based transmission-line company, hopes to begin grid construction as soon as 2013.

“Conceptually, it looks to me to be one of the most interesting transmission projects that I’ve ever seen walk through the door,” according to Jeff Wellinghoff, chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which administers interstate electricity transmission.  “It provides a gathering point for offshore wind for multiple projects up and down the coast.”  The proposed grid will have a capacity of 6,000 megawatts, the equivalent of five large nuclear power plants.  The system will be located in shallow trenches on the seabed in federal waters just 15 to 20 miles offshore and stretch from northern New Jersey to Norfolk, VA.  It will harvest power from wind turbines situated where the winds are strong and the towers will be largely out of sight.  Richard L. Needham, director of Google’s green business operations group, described the plan as “innovative and audacious.  It’s an opportunity to kick-start this industry and, long term, provide a way for the mid-Atlantic states to meet their renewable energy goals.”

Trans-Elect says that the first phase – stretching from northern New Jersey, to Rehoboth Beach, DE – could be completed by 2016, with the rest of the system becoming operational in 2021.  Using offshore wind to generate electricity is more expensive than coal, natural gas or onshore wind, though experts predict offshore turbines will be used more frequently to meet state requirements for locally generated renewable energy.  James J. Hoecker, former chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, described the Atlantic transmission grid as “a necessary piece of what the Eastern governors have been talking about in terms of taking advantage of offshore wind.”